INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY AND LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS ON LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS AND APPEAL

Nyoman Sudana Degeng

Abstract


This research verified the interactive effect between the instructional organization strategy by using elaboration model and the students' characteristics on the learning effectiveness and appeal. Students' characteristics which were predicted to interact with the elaboration model were cognitive style, achievement motivation, and learning strategies. Experimental factorials design was used to test the hypothesis. The independence variable of this study was strategy for organizing instructional content, which was classified into elaboration model and linear model. The moderator variables were students' cognitive style, achievement motivation, and students' learning strategy. The cognitive style was classified into field dependence and field independence. Achievement motivation was classified into high and low. The students' learning strategy was classified into two deferent strategies, those were described the activities that the students do while reading the instructional material. The dependence variable was learning effectiveness and appeal. The total subjects were 16 groups of students. The analysis of data leads to the following conclusions: • Elaboration model was more effective and more appeal than linear model as a strategy of organizing instructional content. • Field independence student revealed significantly higher achievement than field dependence student. • There was no difference on learning effectiveness between student with high and low achievement motivation. • Student with note taking while studying the instructional material revealed significantly higher achievement than student not note taking. • There was an interaction between strategy of organizing instructional materials and students' cognitive style on learning effectiveness. • There was an interaction between strategy of organizing instructional materials and student activities while reading instructional materials on learning effectiveness. • There was an interaction between students' cognitive style and student activities while reading instructional materials on learning effectiveness. • There was an interaction between strategy of organizing instructional materials, students' cognitive style, and student activities while reading instructional materials on learning effectiveness. • There was an interaction between strategy of organizing instructional materials, students' cognitive style, and achievement motivation on learning effectiveness. These findings was very useful for the foundation of developing instructional theories and principles, especially those instructional theories and principles related to the identification of the best instructional strategies for achieveing the predetermined instructional objectives. All efforts directed toward these goals should be incorporated into the discipline: Instructional Science and Technology. This study has also its practical values, especially for developing instructional materials, like textbooks, modules, and other printed materials for instructional purposes.

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